While these developments occurred, construction work began with a thorough examination of the site’s ground composition and drainage, involving exploratory drilling at 29 points.
Next, to allow work with heavy machinery to progress on the soft soil even in damp winter conditions, a 50 centimeter platform of compacted stone was laid across the whole circular area—170 meters in diameter—that will enclose the Shrine and surrounding landscaping. Concrete piles have been driven 15 meters deep, on which the foundation of the central structure is now being built.
At the same time, preparations have begun for the next stages of the project: detailed architectural and landscaping plans to realize the design concept are being drawn up, and a search for suitable sources of building materials is well under way.
Collaboration with local authorities has been essential, whether in obtaining the necessary permits, fostering understanding of the project among neighboring residents, or working with the Israel Antiquities Authority to ensure that the rich history of the area is respected and preserved.
Throughout the design process, care has been taken to account for environmental factors. The Ridvan garden, located on a low-lying plain by the shore of the Mediterranean Sea, is protected by walls and earthworks that were built several years ago to help secure the gardens against flooding. The Shrine will be built on a gently sloping berm that will raise the central structure several meters to account for rising sea levels.
‘Abdu’l-Baha was a resident of Akka for four decades. He arrived as a prisoner and an exile alongside His Father, Baha’u’llah. Despite the many tragedies and adversities He suffered there, He made Akka his home and dedicated Himself to serving the people of the city, especially its poor. In time, He came to be known and revered throughout the region.
He spent the last years of His life in Haifa, and upon His passing was interred there within the Shrine of the Bab. When His earthly remains are transferred to the permanent Shrine, Akka will witness the return of a figure Who left an indelible mark on that city.
The News Service will continue to cover the developments of this momentous endeavor through articles and brief notices, which will be collected in a new section of the website.
To watch a video and listen to podcasts, read the story online, or view more photos, visit news.bahai.org.
BAHA’I WORLD CENTRE, 31 December 2019, (BWNS) — The Baha’i World News Service, reflecting on 2019, provides a brief overview of stories in the past year about developments in the global Baha’i community and a glimpse of the extraordinary worldwide celebrations that took place in honor of the second historic bicentenary.
200th anniversary of the birth of the Bab
October 2019 marked the 200th anniversary of the birth of the Báb, as the forerunner and herald of the Baha’i Faith, whose dramatic ministry paved the way for the appearance of Baha’u’llah. The bicentenary was celebrated worldwide at every level, from the grassroots to the international.
In villages and neighborhoods across the globe, bicentenary preparations began months in advance, prompting an unprecedented intensification of community building activities and an outpouring of artistic works to mark the occasion, reflect on its significance, and recall the momentous life of the Bab. In the lead-up to the anniversary, the News Service reported on these preparations and celebrations in each continent: Africa, the Americas, Asia, Australasia, and Europe. Based on what had been learned in 2017, the celebrations were much more broadly based on this occasion at the grassroots of society.
Notable events also took place at the national level. In the United Kingdom, the British Library launched a remarkable exhibition displaying examples of the Faith’s original texts and hosted an acclaimed one-man play for the occasion; in Australia, New Zealand, and the United States members of Parliament commemorated the bicentenary, acknowledging the Baha’i community’s contributions to the life of society; and in India, the country’s Baha’i community held a special reception for President Ram Nath Kovind.
At the Baha’i World Centre, President of Israel Reuven Rivlin visited the Shrine of the Bab to honor the bicentenary. On another occasion, a reception was held for community leaders, and the terraces on Mount Carmel as well as the Shrine of the Bab were opened to thousands of visitors for a two-night special program.
A film commissioned for the bicentenary, Dawn of the Light, was screened in countless locations around the world. The film follows the personal search for truth and meaning undertaken by people from different parts of the world.
Glimpses of celebrations were captured on the international website Bicentenary.Bahai.org, where a letter from the Universal House of Justice written for the occasion is also available.
The Shrine will be built in the vicinity of the Ridvan Garden in Akka, a holy place visited on Baha’i pilgrimage—a spiritual journey to the Holy Land taken by thousands of people from around the world each year.
Baha’i Houses of Worship
The News Service covered a variety of stories this past year on what is being learned about the social impact of Baha’i Temples in communities around the world and on advancements in the construction of new Houses of Worship in Kenya, Papua New Guinea, and Vanuatu.
A two-part podcast (Part one | Part two) featured interviews with participants of a unique gathering that brought together representatives from 10 countries to explore insights emerging about these structures. In another podcast, representatives from a community in Uganda, where a Temple has stood for over 50 years, explored how collective prayer is influencing society at large.
The past year saw the publication of new selections from the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, as well as the launch of new websites—the Baha’i World publication and the News Service in French and Spanish.
A new volume of Baha’u’llah’s mystical Writings was made available online and in print in February, including a translation of one of His most renowned poetic works, Rashh-i-‘Ama, or The Clouds of the Realms Above. In May, 67 selections from ‘Abdu’l-Baha’s Writings were published for the first time on the Baha’i Reference Library. In August, several collections of images on the Baha’i Media Bank were updated.
And, the five-member board of directors of the newly established Baha’i International Development Organization convened its first meeting in January to consult on its aims and work. The emergence of this new institution at the international level portends significant advances in this area of endeavor in the years to come.
Participation in the discourses of society
Efforts of the Baha’i community to contribute to the betterment of society at the level of thought continued to be a prominent theme covered by the News Service in 2019.
National communities worldwide have participated in many forums where contemporary issues of concern to their societies are being considered by government and civil society actors. Themes explored in these communities have included the role of religion in promoting constructive social change, race unity, and issues concerning social and economic development.
In Spain, the Baha’i community hosted prominent journalists in a roundtable discussion on news media’s impact on social cohesion and the rise of radicalization. In Canada, at a Parliament Committee hearing about combatting online hate speech, representatives of the Bahá’í community highlighted the importance of cultivating a strong moral framework to understand and analyze online media. In Italy and Kiribati, Baha’i communities expressed to their countries’ presidents a shared hope for a unified society. A podcast interview with representatives of Australia’s Baha’i community highlighted the power of consultation to build unity of thought and action in society. In the United States, the Baha’i Chair for World Peace at the University of Maryland, College Park, organized several conferences on prevalent issues, including the future of cities and the inseparable relationship between the advancement of women and the creation of prosperous and peaceful societies.
The News Service also reported on the importance of the participation of youth in social discourses. Young people explored critical issues such as race unity in New Zealand, the environment in the Netherlands, and the younger generation’s distinctive role in contributing to social transformation in Germany.
Persecution of the Baha’is in Iran and Yemen
Against the backdrop of these advances worldwide, the persecution of the Baha’i communities in Iran and Yemen continued.
Earlier this month, the United Nations condemned Iran’s ongoing human rights violations, as the country’s Baha’i community continues to suffer under the weight of state-sponsored systematic persecution. During the celebrations of the bicentenary of the birth of the Bab, Iranian authorities raided gatherings in homes, arrested Baha’is, and sealed off business that were closed in observance of the Holy Days. Over the course of the year, Baha’is in Iran have experienced ongoing persecution, including revolving arrests and home raids; multiple court cases, in some instances yielding sentences of up to 10 years; and continued expulsion of students from university on the basis of their Faith. Many businesses owned by Baha’is remain sealed by order of local authorities.
In Yemen, six Baha’is have remained in prison in Sana’a, one of whom, Hamed bin Haydara, is under a sentence of death. The six have been detained between two-and-half and six years each. During the appeals hearings for Mr. Haydara, the prosecution had repeatedly pressured the court to not only uphold the verdict to execute him but also to deport all Baha’is and ban their entry into the country. In September, the U.N. Human Rights Council condemned the Houthi persecution of the Baha’is.
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THE HAGUE, Netherlands — A century ago yesterday, ‘Abdu’l-Baha penned what has come to be known as the First Tablet to The Hague, an exploration of the profound societal changes required for the attainment of international peace. Marking this occasion, the Baha’i community of the Netherlands on Tuesday night held a special commemorative event at its National Center in The Hague.
Attendees—among them religious leaders—discussed themes from the Tablets to The Hague. “Peace is at the heart of humanity and ‘Abdu’l-Baha in His letter is helping us see how we can reach it,” explained Marga Martens, a representative of the Netherlands’ Baha’i community. “Peace is inevitable, but we have to work hard to reach that state in the world.”
Addressing the Executive Committee of the Central Organization for a Durable Peace in The Hague, ‘Abdu’l-Baha writes in the Tablet’s opening lines, “Your intention deserves a thousand praises, because you are serving the world of humanity, and this is conducive to the happiness and welfare of all.”
In the tablet, ‘Abdu’l-Baha explains that peace would require a transformation in human consciousness and a commitment to fundamental spiritual principles enunciated by Baha’u’llah, such as the abolition of all forms of prejudice, the harmony of science and religion, and the equality of women and men, among others.
While an English translation of the first half of the tablet was published in Selections from the Writings of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in 1978, the complete translation was prepared in May this year and presented on the Baha’i Reference Library.
A photographic chronology recently published on a website by Jelle and Adib de Vries in the Netherlands sheds light on events surrounding ‘Abdu’l-Baha’s Tablets to The Hague. The website describes how two Baha’is in Iran, Ahmad Yazdani and ‘Ali-Muhammad Ibn-i-Asdaq, wrote to ‘Abdu’l-Baha in 1915 about the Central Organization for a Durable Peace. He encouraged them to introduce the Organization to the Baha’i teachings on peace. The Organization wrote to ‘Abdu’l-Baha in 1916, but wartime communications into the Holy Land were blocked.
The Organization’s letter reached ‘Abdu’l-Baha in Haifa three years later, in the aftermath of World War I. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá responded immediately, sending Mr. Yazdani and Mr. Ibn-i-Asdaq to deliver His message in person. According to Dr. de Vries’ research, they arrived in The Hague in May 1920 only to find that the Central Organization for a Durable Peace had virtually dissolved.
Nevertheless, the Organization replied to ‘Abdu’l-Baha’s message, prompting Him to write what is known as the Second Tablet to The Hague. In it, He asserts that “our desire for peace is not derived merely from the intellect: It is a matter of religious belief and one of the eternal foundations of the Faith of God.”
The goal of world peace is central to Baha’i belief. In 1867 and 1868, Baha’u’llah addressed an extraordinary series of tablets to the kings and rulers of the world, urging them to set aside their differences, to establish a system of collective security and move toward disarmament, to champion the cause of justice, to show the utmost care and consideration for the well-being and rights of the poor, and to work toward a lasting peace.
From 1911 to 1913, ‘Abdu’l-Baha spoke extensively during His tour of Europe and North America about the imperative of peace and warned that Europe was on the brink of war.
In a letter dated 28 November 1931, Shoghi Effendi states that the oneness of humanity “calls for no less than the reconstruction and the demilitarization of the whole civilized world—a world organically unified in all the essential aspects of its life ….”
The Universal House of Justice in October 1985 penned a significant message on the subject of world peace, known as The Promise of World Peace. In January of this year, the House of Justice also released a message addressing contemporary challenges facing humanity, in which it states that “the establishment of peace is a duty to which the entire human race is called.” The House of Justice further states that although “world unity is possible—nay, inevitable—it ultimately cannot be achieved without unreserved acceptance of the oneness of humankind.”
“Unity, in its Bahá’í expression, contains the essential concept of diversity, distinguishing it from uniformity,” the House of Justice writes. “It is through love for all people, and by subordinating lesser loyalties to the best interests of humankind, that the unity of the world can be realized and the infinite expressions of human diversity find their highest fulfilment.”
WELLINGTON, New Zealand — Recent bicentenary commemorations for societal leaders were celebratory occasions as well as moments of reflection on the challenges of our time.
In some communities, leaders were moved to express their appreciation of the Baha’i community’s contributions to society during this special period. For example in Wellington, New Zealand, Member of Parliament Priyanca Radhakrishnan hosted a bicentenary celebration in the country’s Parliament Buildings. “I can see that the work that you do in Aotearoa is rooted in the values and beliefs of the Faith,” MP Radhakrishnan said, “for example inculcating values of love, unity, and kindness amongst children, encouraging young people to be constructive agents of change, and contributing to discussions across New Zealand on some of the challenges that face us as a nation.”
A conference organized last month in Kyiv, Ukraine, brought together religious scholars, representatives of different Faith communities, students, and others to explore how the common underlying values of religion can contribute to societal progress.
Organized by Ukraine’s National Academy of Sciences, the Ukrainian Association of Religious Studies, and the country’s Baha’i community, the gathering included a session on the Bab’s life and teachings and highlighted the life of one of His earliest followers—Tahirih. Tahirih is an iconic figure in the cause of women’s advancement. In 19th century Iran, she called for a profound transformation in society’s conception of women and advocated change in the habits and attitudes of society.
Tahirih’s courage and heroism were also the subject of a documentary shown at a bicentenary celebration for dignitaries, representatives of civil society, journalists, and others in Tunis, Tunisia. The screening, held at L’Agora cinema, led to a vibrant discussion on the equality of women and men.
In Sydney, Australia, to honor the bicentenary, the Baha’i community organized a conference on social cohesion and inclusion. “The bicentenary period is an opportunity to reflect on Baha’i teachings related to knowledge, compassion, and justice,” explained Ida Walker, of the country’s Baha’i Office of External Affairs. “This conference provided a space to learn from the experiences of one another and build on the efforts of many individuals and organizations to overcome prejudice and injustice and foster inclusion in society.”
At national gatherings in numerous countries, participants discussed the spirit of renewal brought by the Bab, as the Herald of Baha’u’llah, and the relevance of the Baha’i teachings in addressing the challenges of their societies. Attendees of many celebrations watched Dawn of the Light, which tells the story of eight people as they search for truth and meaning. They describe how their discovery of the Baha’i teachings brought hope and a way forward in addressing the social ills of our time. At a commemoration in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan, the film resonated with a large audience, many of whom were visibly touched by its message.
Other national governments also honored the historic period with special receptions. The Australian Parliament marked the anniversary during a session of its House of Representativesas well as an event last month in the distinguished setting of the Senate Alcove of Parliament House. The United Kingdom Parliament also held a celebration for the bicentenary, hosted by the All Party Parliamentary Group in Portcullis House. Malaysia’s minister for national unity and social well-being, Waytha Moorthy Ponnusamy, recognized the Baha’i community’s contributions to the country at a bicentenary celebration.
And at a reception in Madrid, Spain, held for national leaders, Ana Gallego, a director general of the country’s ministry of justice, explained that “the mission of the Bab aimed to elevate the status of women, promote universal education and the harmony of science and religion, and overcome prejudice, corruption, and fanaticism at a time and place where these ideas were revolutionary.” South Africa’s Baha’i community held a bicentenary celebration for national dignitaries.
In the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, where Baha’u’llah spent two years of His life, a commemoration focused on the history of the Faith in the region. Speaking about the significance of the bicentenary and the Twin Birthdays, a local leader, Sheikh ‘Abdu’l-Rahman Al-Naqshbandi, described the period of Baha’u’llah’s two-year stay in and around the mountains of Sulaymaniyyih more than a century and a half ago. The Figure of Baha’u’llah and the stories of His time there have stayed with the local population, Sheikh Al-Naqshbandi said. “Much was said and continues to be said about (Baha’u’llah); that He had a mission, knew God, and came to Hawraman.”
BIC NEW YORK — Iran has once again been condemned by the international community for its ongoing human rights violations. A United Nations General Assembly committee has expressed its serious concern about the country’s continued attacks against religious minorities, including the Baha’is.
This came in a resolution adopted today by a vote of 84 to 30, with 66 abstentions, from the Third Committee of the General Assembly.
The six-page resolution expressed “serious concern about ongoing severe limitations and increasing restrictions on the right to freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief, … against persons belonging to recognized and unrecognized religious minorities, including … members of the Baha’i faith.”
This resolution follows two recent reports on Iran. Javaid Rehman, Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Iran, noted in his July report that, “Over the past 40 years, the Baha’is, considered to be the largest non-Muslim and unrecognized religious minority in the Islamic Republic of Iran … have suffered from the most egregious forms of repression, persecution and victimization.” Additionally, the Secretary-General in a September report about Iran included the following recommendation: “The Secretary-General urges the Government to ensure the protection of minority groups and individuals, and to uphold and implement legislation that protects them.”
Meanwhile, in Geneva, during the 34th session of the Universal Periodic Review, a large number of countries criticized Iran for its violation of the rights of religious minorities which led to six recommendations that specifically refer to the Baha’is.
“We welcome this resolution and its condemnation of Iran’s egregious human rights violations,” said Bani Dugal, Principal Representative of the Baha’i International Community to the United Nations.
“The passage of this resolution sends a strong message to the Iranian authorities that continuous violations against the Baha’is and other religious minorities are well-noted by the international community, and ongoing discrimination and harassment of any religious minority group for simply practicing their faith will not be tolerated.”
The resolution will be confirmed by the plenary of the General Assembly this December.
BIC ADDIS ABABA — Baha’i International Community offices brought together dignitaries and leaders of international organizations for celebrations of the historic 200th anniversary of the birth of the Bab earlier this month. The gatherings, held at BIC offices in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on Tuesday and in New York City on 1 November, explored the relevance of the Bab and Baha’u’llah’s teachings two centuries ago to the conditions of the world today.
In Addis Ababa, Solomon Belay, a representative of the Baha’i International Community, focused his presentation on the imperative of peace and the emphasis placed on it in the Baha’i teachings. “The reality of peace is so complex that no individual or organization can claim to grasp and promote it alone. We all need to come together and consult on the possibility, prerequisites, and the way of peace.”
“The conviction that we belong to one human family is at the heart of the Baha’i teachings,” Bani Dugal, Principal Representative of the Baha’i International Community, said to the celebration’s attendees. She noted that acceptance of this principle “calls on each of us to strive to overcome all forms of prejudice—whether racial, religious, or gender-related.”
The celebrations served as an opportunity to reflect on the current state of world affairs, as well as the impact that the teachings of the Baha’i Faith are having on diverse populations. Participants in New York’s celebration watched excerpts from the film Dawn of the Light, which demonstrates the implications of some of the core Baha’i teachings in addressing contemporary forms of oppression in diverse settings around the world.
“Profound changes in the structures of society are, of course, essential to lasting peace,” noted Emily Osvold of the BIC, as she introduced a section of the film about individuals working for peace in their communities. “The role of women, of young people, of education, and our economic models—all require reexamination. But individuals need not wait for structural change before contributing to peace. Each person has the potential to become an active agent of social change and to contribute to building a peaceful society.”
Reflecting on the film, one participant noted, “My heart was touched by the message of love. This message is really what gives meaning to all of our lives, and is applicable to all of us, no matter our background.”
In the film, which tells the stories of eight people’s personal search for truth and meaning, one of the interviewees underscores this message of love: “The unquestionable truth is love. Love is what we share with everyone in our society. Love is the reason we exist.”
TORONTO — The prestigious biennial Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (RAIC) International Prize is not a typical architectural award.
An international jury of six highly distinguished architects has to choose a building that stands out for being “transformative within its societal context” and “expressive of the humanistic values of justice, respect, equality, and inclusiveness.” This they have to do from among an extraordinary selection of architectural structures from around the world that have impacted the social life of the communities within which they were built.
This year’s RAIC International Prize of $100,000 was awarded to the Bahá’í House of Worship for South America. The prize money is being dedicated to the long-term maintenance of the Temple. Commissioned by the Universal House of Justice and designed by Canadian architect Siamak Hariri, the House of Worship for South America has become an iconic symbol of unity for Santiago and well beyond. Overlooking the city from the foothills of the Andes, the Temple has received over 1.4 million visitors since its inauguration in October 2016. The House of Worship has not only symbolized unity but it has given expression to a powerful conviction that worship of the divine is intimately connected with service to humanity.
The connection between the built environment and the well-being of society was a preeminent concern for the Jury of the RAIC Prize. Diarmuid Nash, the chair of the Jury, explains that three architectural projects were selected as finalists for the transformative impact they had on their respective communities. “The Bahá’í Temple was a community project. Numerous volunteers worked on this project, similar to a way a community project works in a small village, but this was on a global scale.”
“But the Temple went beyond the community,” he continues. “It extended the principles of the Bahá’í Faith—that every person is equal, that every person can come here to reflect and regenerate. It had this impact that rippled beyond the community and attracted more and more people from all walks of life.”
The process of selection was rigorous and extended over six months. Jury members were asked to perform site visits as part of their research and selection process. “We asked Stephen Hodder, former President of the Royal Institute of British Architects and guest Juror, to visit this project,” says Mr. Nash. “We thought he would have a dispassionate eye.”
Mr. Hodder visited the Temple for three days earlier this year and spent a significant amount of time with the local community. He later shared his impressions with the Jury, referring to the House of Worship as “truly transformational, timeless and spiritual architecture, the like of which I have never experienced, and the influence of which extends way beyond the building.”
Speaking about Mr. Hodder’s visit, Mr. Nash says “Stephen said to me that he had not felt such an emotional impact since he had walked into Ronchamp, which is a very famous chapel all of us have visited in our architectural careers. It is a touchstone of modern architecture. He said ‘this goes beyond Santiago, it reaches out to the world.’”
Mr. Hodder in his comments to the Jury shared the following thoughts:
“How can it be that a building captures the spirit of ‘unity,’ a sacred place, or command a prevailing silence without prompting? The interior space spirals upwards vortex-like culminating with the oculus within which is the inscription ‘O Thou Glory of the Most Glorious’. Seating orientates to Haifa and the Shrine of the Báb, the forerunner of Bahá’u’lláh…. But why do people flock to the Bahá’í Temple? Is it the garden, planted with native species and lovingly cared for by volunteers, or the view over Santiago and remarkable sunsets, or the curious object set against the mountains? The Temple is the anchor…At night, the opacity of the cast glass outer skin, and the translucency of the Portuguese marble inverts, and the dome appears to glow ethereally from the inside…. The Temple has not only afforded a focus for the Bahá’í community but in their commitment to ‘service’ also for the neighbourhood and its well being.”
It was not only the impact of the Temple on society but also the nature of its craftsmanship that struck the Jury. “It was lovingly assembled,” says Mr. Nash. “The woodwork, the stonework, and the glasswork—they all have the sense of a hand shaping them, which is remarkable for a project so sophisticated. This had a powerful impact on the Jury. There was this sense that the hand of the community had crafted the outcome.”
In the wake of the award, Mr. Hariri has been reflecting on the endeavour. “Hundreds of people sacrificially worked on this project with great dedication, enormous skill, and put themselves forward at the very frontier of what’s possible in architecture,” he explains.
“The Temple reflects an aspiration. What architects do is put into form aspiration. When you have a chance like this, where the aspirations are so great, it requires the furthest reaches of imagination to meet that challenge.”
The award was presented on 25 October at a ceremony at the Westin Harbour Castle in Toronto. “Above all,” said Mr. Hariri in remarks he made that evening, “our gratitude extends to the Universal House of Justice which was our unwavering source of guidance, courage, and constancy.”
Mr. Nash, who was there, says that as the talk finished people were standing and cheering. “We were all very inspired. It’s a project that has a life of its own. It is supposed to be a building built to last 400 years. I suspect it will go well beyond that.”